Prime Suspect: Who Commissioned the Jesus Myth?

I had heard both positive and negative remarks about Joseph Atwill’s book, Caesar’s Messiah before actually getting a chance to read it myself.

Upon commencing the book I was prepared for another disappointing hare brained theory comparable to the abundant theories about Atlantis which make me wonder what planet I am on.

So I was surprised to encounter a theory which I consider to have some merit and it’s not beyond all plausibility.

Atwill’s theory is rather sensible, though it’s likely not the entire picture. Here are the things I think make his theory work:

  1. It demonstrates a possible motive behind the gospels
  2.  It works as far as timing goes.
  3. The geographical locations which Titus is said to have visited allow for his having been exposed to the ideas which would later be incorporated into the Messianic story.
  4. A number of historical facts support the idea that the stories of Jesus were likely the brainchild of Titus Flāvius Caesar Vespasiānus Augustus.
Titus Flāvius Caesar Vespasiānus Augustus. By Filipo, CC BY 3.0

When reading through books on Roman history it’s clear that most of recorded history is about the struggle for positions of power. One guy gets in power, and another challenges him. He might win. He might lose. But the top job is never secure. Occasionally people manage to hang on for longer than average, but it is generally a life filled with opposition. Even rulers that were considered to be just and fair get ousted by those who are no longer profiting under the new “equitable” regime. Changes have sometimes happened at an alarming rate with the top job changing hands multiple times in the space of a single year.

Anyone aspiring to the top job would have been aware of how difficult it is to retain it. Nero, who was the emperor at the beginning of the Judean revolt, was as paranoid as anyone, even having his own mother killed. His close advisor, Seneca, tried to quell his killing spree by reminding Nero that no matter how many people he killed he would never be able to kill his successor. But an Emperor will always have to watch his back.

In light of this constant struggle for power and taking into account that many powerful families were made up of extremely intelligent and cunning people, to me it seemed possible and plausible that Christianity had been employed as a way of controlling the populace at a much more personal level. Gaining control of people’s minds is certainly what ended up becoming the religion’s method of self-preservation and even perpetuation. However that outcome seems to be far too difficult to predict. There had to be a more direct reason for the religion’s creation. An emperor (or ruling family) would need to have superhuman analytical and predictive skills to know that this would be an effective way to maintain power. I don’t think it’s unreasonable to suggest that immediate problems are what drives one to devise a solution or at least attempt an effective response.

So the question is, what was the immediate problem that needed solving? What problem did the composition of the Jesus stories attempt to solve?

Seeing as the Jesus stories all take place near Jerusalem, this is where we might look for some problem that would have needed to be solved.

As the destruction of the temple is mentioned in the book of Matthew and we know that this took place in 70  AD, we will use this date as the earliest date for the composition of the Gospels. The problem we can identify around that time in history and in the location where the Gospels take place was the first Judean uprising. Vespasian had been called in specifically to deal with this in 66 AD. By 69 AD Titus had joined him, doubling the number of Roman forces. But the problem was a difficult one. They were facing a populace that would rather kill themselves than yield to the Roman occupation. This required more than force of arms.

Apart from using sieges and force of numbers the Romans were known to also use other tactics such as sacrificing to their enemy’s god. Employing curses was also not out of the question. Roman accounts of curses have been found. Ogden 2002

Whether the gospels were written as a curse or whether the gospels were written to merely mock the locals may seem like a difficult question that could be answered either way. To me the first option seems the most likely. It’s a much more practical purpose. Yes there is a third possibility, which to me seems even less likely. That the gospels were written to change the minds of the locals. This would seem an exercise in futility, knowing what we know from the descriptions found in the Wars of The Jews by Josephus. The local populace were not going to yield in any way, shape or form.

From AD 61 to 63 Titus had served in Germany and Britain as a military tribune. He would have had opportunity to be exposed to the ideas of the Gauls and Druids about whom Julius Caesar a century earlier wrote “The nation of all the Gauls is extremely devoted to superstitious rites; and on that account they who are troubled with unusually severe diseases, and they who are engaged in battles and dangers, either sacrifice men as victims, or vow that they will sacrifice them, and employ the Druids as the performers of those sacrifices; because they think that unless the life of a man be offered for the life of a man, the mind of the immortal gods can not be rendered propitious, and they have sacrifices of that kind ordained for national purposes.” The Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar

This idea of an atoning sacrifice certainly made its way into the Jesus narrative. This admittedly can not be traced solely to the influence which Caesar’s writings would have had on Titus. The practice of sacrifice we know was spread far and wide. Sacrifice, and even regicide was still being practised during that epoch. However the possibility that Titus had travelled to areas that practised satirical cursing is one which makes this whole topic extremely  interesting. Diodorus Siculus informs us that the satires made by the bards of Gaul were believed to possess some type of power. Usually this was limited to blotches on the skin. But there are stories told of bards who used satire to overthrow a king. According to Chris Tavers, “The Aes Dana (artists who belonged to no tribes) enjoyed a privileged place in Irish society, and their counterparts probably did in Britain and Gaul as well. A member of the Aes Dana was allowed to pass between clans without delay, questioning, etc. Even the chieftains did not have this luxury. They were also provided for by whoever were their hosts, and the penalties for not doing so, especially for the wealthy could be severe. In a tale in the Mythological cycle of Irish myths/legends, Bres fails to show hospitality to Cairbry, a poet. In response, Cairbry composes a satire which overthrows the Bres as the King of Ireland.
The Religion of the Ancient Celts Ch.XXI By J. A. MacCulloch [1911]; 
Who Were the Druids? by Chris Travers

Prior to my reading Caesar’s Messiah I had wondered if Christianity had been invented as a way of improving the imperial hold on power by way of uniting as many gods as possible under one name, that of Jesus Christ. This had been done centuries earlier by the Greek rulers of Egypt when they created the god Serapis. With the creation of Jesus Christ a god for a Roman populace had been produced. This new god suited the vast empire which stretched from Spain and the British Isles, to Turkey and included Egypt, Italy, etc etc.. While this kind of syncretising may have been one of the motives, and to an intelligent and educated emperor such as Titus, could have been something he had been considering doing, in my opinion, as a sole motive it just doesn’t appear to be strong enough.

Joseph Atwill demonstrates that the Gospels were written not as merely a new “god story” but were a satire. The key which unlocks this mystery is a careful reading of the Wars of the Jews allegedly penned by Josephus Flavius, a personage that is (according to Josephus) Titus’ adopted brother.

Would Titus (or his father) have been engaged in commissioning satire?

A name that is often brought up in relation to satire in Rome during that period is the name of Quintillian.

Quintillian was a contemporary of Titus. He was born in 35 AD, Titus in 39 AD, which means that Quintillian was just 4 years older than Titus.

Quintillian was known to be a master of rhetoric and claimed that “satire is wholly our own”. That in itself is only vaguely interesting, but here is the real nugget: In A.D. 72, Quintillian was one of the rhetoricians to receive a subsidy from the Emperor. Who was the Emperor? None other than Vespasian.

However without any stronger evidence to show Quintillian, whose works have almost all been lost, as an author of parts of the New Testament I thought it would be necessary to look closer at Titus himself. Was Titus capable of such an undertaking?

Titus is said to have been gifted physically and intellectually, exceptionally strong, with an authoritative, yet friendly manner and a supposedly excellent memory. He was an excellent rider and warrior. Already in AD 70, while still in the east, Titus was made joint consul with his father. Then in AD 71 he was granted tribunician powers and in AD 73 he shared the censorship with his father.

Suetonius in The Lives of The Twelve Caesars described Titus as being:

“very ready in the Latin and Greek tongues, both in verse and prose; and such was the facility he possessed in both, that he would harangue and versify extempore … He was remarkably quick in writing short-hand, would in merriment and jest engage with his secretaries in the imitation of any hand-writing he saw, and often say that, he was admirably qualified for forgery.”

Suetonius also describes Titus as being active and deploring a day when he was not engaged in some accomplishment:

“Once at supper, reflecting that he had done nothing for any that day, he broke out into that memorable and justly-admired saying, My friends, I have lost a day.”

Another interesting character trait which Titus possessed was that he was not afraid of undertaking bold and daring projects. Titus was the one who had the Colisseum built as one of his major public projects during his reign.

Titus would have also had the opportunity to learn about the local religions and beliefs during the time he had been stationed in Alexandria prior to arriving in Judea.

Arriving in Judea, Titus was faced with a tough problem. The Judean revolt was not your average battle. The Judeans had been committing suicide rather than surrendering. His father, Vespasian, had been handling the situation for 3 years, but became appointed as emperor of Rome and left the command to his son, Titus in 69 AD.

The following year Titus dealt the Judeans what should have been a devastating blow. He completely and utterly destroyed their temple.

And yet the war would continue for another 3 years. Is it possible that during this time Titus, in desperation composed a curse to try and defeat his enemy?

As a work of satire would be used to both denigrate, abase and even act as a sort of curse against the subject, the New Testament, when seen in this light, appears as cruel as could be expected from a soldier used to the killing and destruction of enemy forces.

The characters written into the satire would not have to represent any specific person or concept but would be used variously to express whatever concept the creator wanted to insert.

The Jesus character appears to have been both a representation of the failed Messianic characters who had tried to claim the Messianic position, as well as the new ruler/god(s) that Vespasian and Titus were attempting to impose on the Judean people.

It is interesting to note that Vespasian had made it clear that Titus was his chosen heir and sucessor. As mentioned above, Titus shared the censorship with his father. So too did he become praetorian prefect. This was all part of Vespasian’s grooming of his son as successor.
Throughout this time Titus was his father’s right hand man, conducting routine affairs of state, dictating letters, even delivering his father’s speeches in the senate. Vespasian is reported to have once said, ‘Either my son shall be my successor, or no one at all.’ Source

This gives new meaning to the words placed in the mouth of the Jesus character: “I and my Father are one.”

The book of Matthew as Satire

Joseph Atwill proposes that the Gospels are satire. Having noticed a number of similarities in a lengthy written work which has many stories that take place in precisely the same geographical location as do the Gospel stories, he decided to begin comparing passages. Atwill shows quite convincingly that the works of Josephus Flavius, the name to whom Wars of The Jews is attributed serves as a key to understanding the Gospels.

Atwill analyses over a dozen parallels to which the works of Josephus provide the key.

I propose a few additional reasons not covered by Atwill as to why the gospels could be seen as satire.


The book of Matthew begins with genealogies. It may not immediately be apparent that the author is poking fun at the genealogies found in Genesis. However when the author claims to add up the generations he miscounts:

How many generations were there from Abraham to Jesus?

Matthew: “From Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations”—in all, forty-two generations (i, 17).

Here Matthew contradicts his own record given in the preceding sixteen verses; for, including both Abraham and Jesus, he names forty-one generations: 1. Abraham, 2. Isaac, 3. Jacob, 4. Judas, 5. Phares, 6. Ezrom, 7. Aram, 8. Aminadab, 9. Naason, 10. Salmon, 11. Booz, 12. Obed, 13. Jesse, 14. David, 15. Solomon, 16. Roboam, 17. Abia, 18. Asa, 19. Josaphat, 20. Joram, 21. Ozias, 22. Joatham, 23. Achaz, 24. Ezekias, 25. Manasses, 26. Amon, 27. Josias, 28. Jechonias, 29. Salathiel, 30. Zorobabel, 31. Abiud, 32. Eliakim, 33. Azor, 34. Sadoc, 35. Achim, 36. Eliud, 37. Eleazer, 38. Matthan, 39. Jacob, 40. Joseph, 41. Jesus Christ.

But it’s not just a matter of miscounting once. The author of Matthew does it repeatedly.

How many generations were there from Abraham to David?

Matthew: “From Abraham to David are fourteen generations” (i, 17).

From Abraham to David are not fourteen, but thirteen generations; that’s because the author of Matthew includes David as part of the second group of fourteen generations. The genealogical table of Matthew pretends to naturally and logically comprise the list into three divisions. The first division comprises the generations before the establishment of the Kingdom of David, beginning with Abraham; the second comprises the kings of Judah, beginning with David the first and ending with Jechonias the last; the third comprises the generations following the kings of Judah, from the Captivity to Christ.

But does the author of Matthew stop the joke there? No. He is just getting started. Right after this he continues on to add an explanation which would offend any reader paying attention. The next list is also purportedly 14 generations. However to keep the number at 14 the original genealogy found in the book of Chronicles is redacted. Four names are omitted as they don’t suit the desired number which was carefully explained to be a multiple of seven:

Matthew. Chronicles.
David, David,
Solomon, Solomon,
Reboam, Rehoboam,
Abia, Abia,
Asa, Asa,
Josaphat, Jehoshaphat,
Joram, Joram,
Ozias, Azariah,
Joatham, Jotham,
Achaz, Ahaz,
Ezekias, Hezekiah,
Manasses, Manasseh,
Amon, Amon,
Josias, Josiah,
Jechonias. Jechoniah.

This is only the superficial part of the satire.

A Bastard as the Anointed One

The real joke is that this genealogy lists the ancestry of Joseph, who the story does not place as the “biological” father of Jesus. Even though the author goes to great lengths and uses valuable space to list 41 names in the lineage, to supposedly prove royal provenance, it is completely irrelevant to anyone who places value on lineage and traceable family. The genealogy is stated clearly to be that of Joseph, and it is unmistakably spelled out that Jesus is not his son. The Romans were not very kind to and did not think much of people who were uncertain of their parentage. Plutarch even suggests that the term Patrician originated as the name of a group of people who could be certain about who their fathers were.

“The rest of the people were now organised. They were called Populus, and a hundred of the noblest were chosen from among them and formed into a council. These he called Patricians, and their assembly the Senate. This word Senate clearly means assembly of old men; and the members of it were named Patricians, according to some, because they were the fathers of legitimate offspring; according to others, because they were able to give an account of who their own fathers were, which few of the first colonists were able to do.” Plutarch’s Lives I

The author of Matthew had a penchant for misquoting prophecies and even making up prophecies so he could keep saying “That the prophecy might be fulfilled.” It was a custom all throughout the Roman empire, to mention Oracles and prophecies when writing about important people. Numerous biographies include mentions of Oracular predictions. Vespasian is no exception. This was something that was taken seriously most of the time. For Matthew to consistently misquote and invent prophecies shows that something is off about his story telling.


If the purpose of Matthew is not to relay specific information in story form, is is possible that this book was written as a satire?

Satire was used as entertainment in the Roman world. However in neighbouring lands it was used as a curse. If the book of Matthew was written as a curse what other clues can we find?

What type of spells were used during that time period? We know that number coding was used at the time.

Matthew: Written in Greek Or in Hebrew?

As we get into the next section it will be good to establish in what language the book of Matthew was written.
David Maas ,adjunct Professor of English who holds the following  degrees: B.A. (1993), Ambassador University; B.A. (1966), M.A. (1967), Ed. Specialist (1972 Certificate in Biblical Studies; Certificate in Business Studies; Certificate in Christian Family Studies; put forth the following case for the book of Matthew having been written originally in Greek.

The External Evidence

The evidence for the original language of a document is divided between “external” and “internal” proofs. “External” refers to ancient manuscripts and other witnesses from outside the text of the document.
“Internal” evidences are those facts and indicators derived from the text itself, in this case the Gospel of Matthew.

  1. Ancient Manuscripts. All surviving ancient manuscripts of Matthew or parts of it are in Greek. This includes complete copies of the gospel from the major Uncial manuscripts of the third, fourth and fifth centuries including Codex Vaticanus, Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus. Additionally, portions of the Greek text of Matthew are well attested by an array of ancient papyrus manuscripts (most of which are fragmentary).
    Several of these date back to the first half of the second century.
    This evidence includes p1 (third century), p21 (fourth century), p25 (fourth century), p35 (fourth century), p37 (third century), p45 (third century), p62 (fourth century), p64/67 (100 – 200 A.D.), p70 (third  century), p71 (fourth century), p77 (second century), p86 (fourth century
    ). In contrast, there are no surviving manuscripts of an original Hebrew or Aramaic version of Matthew’s Gospel, assuming it ever existed.
  2. The Ancient Translations. Because Christianity was a missionary
    -oriented religion the New Testament was translated relatively quickly into other languages, including Matthew. Among the earliest translations were the Syriac (the Old Syriac, Peshitta, Harclean & Palestinian versions), Latin (Old Latin and the Vulgate) and Coptic (Sahidic and Bohairic). In each case the translation of Matthew was made from Greek originals, not Aramaic or Hebrew sources.
  3. The Witness of Early Church Authors. Several church fathers of the late first and early second centuries wrote letters in which they alluded to or quoted passages from Matthew. This includes 1 Clement written around 95 A.D. (e.g., Matthew 6:12 – 15 quoted in 1 Clement XIII), the letters of Ignatius of Antioch (approximately 110 A.D. – e.g., Matthew 5:4 in Ignatius to the Ephesians chapter X), and Polycarp of Smyrna’s letter to the Philippians (110 A.D. – e.g., Matthew 7:1 in Chapter II). Writing in the middle of the second century in Chapter XV of his First Apology Justin Martyr quoted or alluded to Matthew 5:28, 5:29, 5:32, 5:44, 5:46, 6:19, 6:20, 9:13, 16:26 and 19:12. In the Preface to his Against Heresies Irenaeus writing around 170 A.D. alluded to Matthew 7:15 and quoted Matthew 10:26. The preceding are just a few the many examples that can be cited from the early church fathers. In each case the author wrote in Greek and all his New Testament allusions and quotations were from Greek originals.

The Internal Evidence

The “internal” evidence amounts to facts, observations and indicators found in the text of Matthew itself.
  1. Matthew gives no indication of being a translation. A document of any length translated from one language to another, especially utilizing languages as fundamentally different as Greek and Hebrew, gives indications of being a translation. The Greek version of Matthew gives no substantial signs of being a translation from Hebrew or any other language; in fact, just the opposite.
  2. Matthew’s Use of Material from Mark: Matthew includes a great deal of the same materials as the Gospel of Mark (Matthew reproduces approximately 90% of Mark’s text). In many instances there is great correspondence between the Greek texts of passages found in both Matthew and Mark (e.g., Matthew 9:6–Mark 2:10, “but that you may know that the Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins”). However, Matthew often edited out unnecessary words from Mark’s text and improved Mark’s Greek syntax. Those who argue that Matthew was later translated from Hebrew into Greek “must also argue that the translator had Mark before him and that he simultaneously redacted Mark’s Greek as he translated the putative Aramaic Matthew. Though not impossible, this solution remains improbable.” Matthew’s Use of the Old Testament. In his gospel Matthew included verbal allusions to the Old Testament as well as direct quotations. Sometimes he used a version of a passage from the Hebrew Old Testament, other times from the ancient Greek translation or Septuagint (e.g., Matthew 1:23 quotes Isaiah 7:14 from the Septuagint – “behold, a virgin shall be with child…”). Complicating the matter was Matthew’s tendency to rely on the Hebrew Old Testament in texts quoted in the narrative portions of his gospel, but then attributing Old Testament quotations made by Jesus that were based on the Septuagint,though not exclusively so in either case (e.g., in Matthew 4:4 Jesus precisely follows the Septuagint text of Deuteronomy 8:3). In contrast, no New Testament quotations from a Hebrew or Aramaic original have been preserved in the writings of the early church fathers.
Conclusion: Until a 1st century Hebrew manuscript shows up we will have to work on the premise that the Book of Matthew was composed in Greek.

Greek Isopsephy

Isopsephy is the practice of adding up the number values of letters in a word or a phrase and thereby create a numerical value. Greece and Rome each had their own systems for doing this. It was something that was in vogue during the time in question.

There are a number of instances of isopsephy found in graffiti at Pompeii, dating from around 79 AD. One reads Φιλω ης αριθμος ϕμε, “I love her whose number is 545.” Another says, “Amerimnus thought upon his lady Harmonia for good. The number of her honorable name is 45.” Suetonius, writing in 121 AD, reports a political slogan that someone wrote on a wall in Rome:

“Nero, Orestes, Alcmeon their mothers slew.
A calculation new. Nero his mother slew”

Titus was alive at the same time as Nero, and even studied with Nero’s step brother Britannicus. There shouldn’t be any doubt that Titus would have been aware of Isopsephy.

I wondered if Titus had encoded the number of his name within the Gospel of Matthew. This would be the perfect satirical spell. The gospel of John opens with these words: “In the beginning was the word. And the word was made flesh and dwelt among us.” Later in the book the flesh has to be eaten by the disciples. If Titus had encoded his name in it, this would be essentially a spell compelling his enemies to eat his name.

I started looking for Titus’ name in the book of Matthew. But I didn’t hold out much hope of it being easy. If it were encoded in a number I thought I would start by examining the numbers in the first chapter.

The book of Matthew focuses on the number 42 in its first chapter but it does so in a peculiar manner. Essentially the author draws attention to 42, but also to an unseen number, the number 1 which is missing or hidden from the total. This is done by telling the reader that there are 42 generations when in fact there are only 41 listed.

I wasn’t able to determine anything significant about this number but wondered if the following concepts might come in handy: 42, 1, hidden. As I couldn’t identify any additional obvious elements I decided to see if there were any repetitive patterns in the entire text. I was hoping that they would be easily distinguishable.

I remembered that years ago I had read that a Dr. Christian Lindtner had tallied the entire amount of letters in each segment of the Greek book of Matthew. He thought that there were some peculiarities in the numbers these added up to. I’d looked over his work but to me the numbers involved didn’t seem particularly interesting. It may be worth further investigation, but what I was looking for was to see if Titus had used isopsephy to insert the number of his name into this writing.

I made use of Dr Lindtner’s work to tally up all the letters in the Greek book of Matthew and noted down the total.

Total letters in the Greek Book of Matthew = 2320

I then used the Greek Isopsephia calculator to enter in the name of Titus and see what value it returned.

Titus Isopsephia

I couldn’t see anything significant about the number 1210 so I tried entering Vespasianus.

This one turned up a prime number, 1153, which is a Proth prime number at that. Cool, but still not that interesting as far as linking this name to the book of Matthew. Mind you, there is mention near the end of the book of John that 153 fish were caught. 1000+153. That is a strange coincidence even if a minor one.

Vespasianus Isopsephia

It was when I entered the name of Titus Vespasianus that my heart nearly skipped a beat.

Titus Vespasianus Isopsephia

Titus Vespasianus = 2363

I could see that this number was extremely close to the amount of letters in the Greek book of Matthew.

Total letters in the Book of Matthew = 2320
Titus Vespasianus = 2363
Difference = 42+1

Now where had I seen the number 42 and 1?

In the very first chapter of Matthew: 42, 1, hidden.

We can also note that there are 43 years between the year assigned to the beginning of the ministry of Jesus and the end of the Judean war.

All a coincidence? Ask any private investigator and they will tell you that coincidences are always worth looking into.

The importance of Symbolism in the decipherment of history Part 2

See part 1 here:

My wife thinks it’s silly of me to read prefaces, indexes, and footnotes. It’s mostly a waste of time, she says. Yes, this can often times be true. But I have discovered so many interesting bits of information by looking through those oft neglected sections of books that I now rarely skip them. You never know what you might come across.

The preface of one book actually moved me close to tears. It was, believe it or not, in the form of a poem. It was found in the beginning of  a series of 12 volumes. You’d think that 12 volumes is long enough to try to get through without bothering with the introduction. It would have been all too easy to skip over the first few pages and miss a very interesting point that was expressed on the first page. And the point made was that the author had dedicated his life to this work but it had been accomplished at the cost of missing out on his children growing up. The series of books I am referring to is “Ancient Egypt: the Light of the World – a Work of Reclamation and Restitution in Twelve Books” by Gerald Massey.

The time and effort Massey put into his works is truly impressive. His deductive reasoning shines through in all his work. He was brilliantly adept at stripping back all the layers of added context which pile on throughout time to traditions, local customs, spoken and unspoken language, even place names, and he was able to imagine a time before recorded history. He then theorised about what essential elements of life would have given rise to the practices which have become integral to many communities’ identities. This gave rise to aptly titled works such as “The Book of The Beginnings” and “The Natural Genesis”.

Necessity gives birth not only to novel solutions but perhaps to everything.

This concept makes one realise that the world isn’t just a collection of crazy people (yes I said “just”) it is a collection of crazy people who got here using a very practical approach. Humans have the ability to deduct cause and effect. We don’t always get it right, but we have an instinctive need to work out what causes something and do our best at coming up with a reasonable explanation. From reading the works of philosophers like Plato, Plotinus, Xeno, Socrates, I can see that the human mind has been looking to understand the cause of things for the last 2 to 3 millennia and likely did so for a long time before those philosophers lived. Many pictographs indicate that this is indeed the case.


Considering the fact that the human mind is best at remembering things when using pictures, (see part one of this blog post) and that this has been known for thousands of years as per the writings of Cicero, we can begin to decipher the encoded pictographs which are still with us since time immemorial.

If we were to strip back all the added elements of civilisation, social interaction, art, and non essential practices that surround us in today’s world we may find that some of the greatest concerns still remain. Food security would undoubtedly top the list. It would not be beyond reason to credit humans of old with the ability to deduct that the sun was one of the more obvious essential supports to plant and animal life. As the sun would be seen every year to increase and decrease in its power fear as to whether the sun would at some point continue fading away and never return could naturally arise. The hope of the sun’s return would have been an essential part of educating the next generation. Without some assurance that things will get better when the opposite is seen to be occurring people can, and often do, lose hope.

Human (anthropomorphic) or part animal  (therianthropic) characters as representatives of abstract concepts make for easier story creation.

To be continued.

The importance of Symbolism in the decipherment of history Part 1

Many years ago a friend of mine told about having seen an episode of a show called “The $64,000 question”. In the show, from what I recall, contestants had to as a series of questions in an attempt to uncover some secret about another contestant. One contestant’s secret turned out to be that he had committed the entire 66 books which make up the Christian Holy Bible to memory. My friend thought it was silly that anyone would even try to do such a thing. I however wanted to know if it would be possible for me to pull off a similar feat. I wondered if this super memory was a skill or  was it something people are born with. Was there some way this could be learned? I could remember phone numbers and birthdays but what would it take to remember something that impressive? Did the person in question have some kind secret method? If so, what was it? How had he learnt the method? I had so many questions. Yet I could not figure out how I would ever be able to find any answers. Thus began my quest to uncover the secrets of super memory. Of course this was all before the internet. Finding information at the time often seemed impossible. Even with the advent of the internet it’s not always as straight forward as one would hope. Searches can and often do turn up mediocre results. Eventually, though, my searching did pay off. I finally discovered that there are techniques which can be learnt. The fact that the techniques were accessible, and that they actually worked was a very big moment for me. The book which held the secrets was published in 1966. It is called “The Art Of Memory” by Frances Yates and remains, in my opinion, unsurpassed in its comprehensive coverage of memory techniques throughout history. The earliest system mentioned by the author references a technique that had been set down in writing by Cicero in 55 BCE. The work in question affirms that a person by the name of Simonides had invented this technique some time prior, meaning that it is even older than the time of Cicero. It would be rash to exclude the possibility that various techniques for improving memory have been in use since much much earlier than this written instance. We will see later that mnemonic techniques have a much older origin as they can be seen as central in the development of a number of written languages. Writing, as we know, has played a central role in the flourishing of civilisation.

Sometimes peddled as secrets or arcane mysteries only for the initiated, super memory techniques are always going to be of interest to humans. Good memories are a valued human trait. From what I have gathered so far it appears that the most effective method for remembering anything at all is to create symbolic associations. The mind, it is said, categorises and imprints not specific words but images. While one could debate whether or not certain types of personalities respond better to one set of stimuli than they do to others, on the overall, I contend, that picture association will rarely fail to do the trick. If you need to remember that your new friend’s name is Jay Walker you can conjure up any image you want that involves objects that can be described as “Jay” and “Walker”. This is the basis of the technique, and it just works. From this starting point one can continue on to delve deeper as there are additional methods for working with words which have no homophones. Then there are techniques of linking many words together. But the method I just described is the basic technique. Just that little trick is enough to make a huge difference when trying to remember an important bit of information.

Part 2


On the Christ Myth

A collection of articles regarding the Christ Myth

Alexander The Great’s Historicity vs Jesus’

There are quite a number of well known characters whose existence is not one hundred percent certain. In some cases everything we know about them was compiled more than a generation after the time frame during which they are said to have lived. While it is frustrating to not be certain if these folks really did live, their stories are still a part of history. There are fascinating sayings attributed to them which inform our view of the world and humanity around their respective time periods. Many of the teachings even contain valuable timeless advice that many people choose to apply in their every day lives. Yes even some of the words attributed to the Jesus character. There is some quotable material, some kind of interesting stuff, some of the sayings may even be profound, if you know how to read them. Shakespere is another person whose historicity has been questioned. Even though this questioning was initiated by the same person who started the modern day Atlantis craze, Ignatius P Donelly, some people still find his arguments worth a look in. Moving further east we find that Buddha may never have existed. Evidence of his life from contemporary writers has not surfaced, nor has it even been alluded to, and therefore there isn’t a single shred of real useful evidence that he existed. His writings and teachings were compiled long after his death. Pillars built in his honour were constructed 300 years after the time he is said to have lived. And yet his philosophy has spread across the globe. Apollonius of Tyana’s life was written 100 years after his life. So he may never have existed. But his teachings live on in some remote fashion. His teachings are said to have influenced Bahaulla and the development of the Bahai religion many centuries later. Even Confucious doesn’t have anything written during his lifetime. But his proverbs have endured.

Some people say that there is as much evidence for Alexander the Great having lived as there is for Jesus. Therefore, they conclude, we should accept that Jesus Christ was a true life flesh and blood person.

Not so fast.

While the aforementioned people have no contemporary witnesses, Jesus ranks a little differently because of what we are being asked to believe.

First of all, without a virgin birth and without a resurrection he pretty much becomes a nobody.

Ok Alexander the Great was said to also have been sired by a god.  Velikovsky’s research on the topic suggests that Alexander’s mother visited Egypt, the priest of Amun, specifically for this purpose. No one seems to think that Alexander was actually sired by a supernatural god.

There is also an important difference between Alexander the Great and Jesus. No one is praying for you to turn to Alexander and listen to the Holy Spirit’s urging you to give your life to Alexander. No one says “Alexander loves you”, and “Alexander can heal you!”, and “Let Alexander carry your burdens and worries!”

All those manuscripts.

So much was written about Jesus in the second, third and fourth centuries. Surely, some aver, there must have been a real person to write about. Why else would they write so much material?

First of all, not a single manuscript that is extant today has been dated to the supposed time of Jesus life. There are a couple of manuscripts that were written very close to the time, but the references to Jesus are insertions, so crudely done, that they made me laugh out loud when I came across them.

All the gospels were written much later than the time period allotted to Jesus. Now people say that these were stories passed down through the spoken word. If we take this point of view, how can these writings be considered anything remotely resembling eye witness accounts. The whole thing is rather baffling.

It could be compared to me saying that I am going to write a book about the life of Mr. Amazeness who lived in X-town in 1766. Of course my book includes private conversations and even a couple soliloquies! Let’s imagine that this personage becomes very popular. The book is a best seller and becomes a phenomenal success, the Mr Amazeness craziness . Eventually fan fiction appears. But just because there’s fan fiction doesn’t mean the original knew anything about what happened 150 years before putting pen to paper. This is not even the biggest hole in the plot! Imagine if the story included a chapter on he was conceived. His mother had been impregnated by an ethereal being. The kid grew up and then was killed and … it’s got all the hall marks of Zeus, and Osiris, and Set, it’s mythology pure and simple. Let’s face it, with the Jesus story, the Romans, or whoever composed it, were just trying to make their own even better version of the very cool god the Greek rulers of Egypt had 500 years earlier: Serapis!

Recommended reading: The Christ(Free ebook from


Beauty and its relationship to survival

This morning I went for a walk through a nature reserve which includes some lovely scenery along the Yarra river. The light of the sun filtered through the surrounding trees where lorikeets, rosellas, and cockatoos completed the scene with their lively chatter.

As I passed through this beautiful moment in time I was aware that this entire scene was being collected by my senses and collated into what I consider a cohesive image in my brain.

But was it real? If we consider that our brain’s ability to recognise and classify objects is based on our previous experiences we will have to acknowledge that how we classify objects may give rise to error. So I may have seen things which I was unable to recognise, or more specifically, was unable to classify and therefore I may have misidentified them. Or I may have seen things which someone else would not notice.

A question that follows, and which has likely been posed since before the time of Plato and Lao Tsu is whether things exist in and of themselves or if things only exist because we think they do. My instinctive response is that of course things exist even if I don’t exist. To think that things only exist because of me is a little too egocentric for my liking. It also seems illogical. However if we want to be scientific about this we can’t actually prove to ourselves that anything exists without us being present to witness it. This concept is also featured in eastern philosophy. Existence consists of three components. The observer, the observed, and the act of observing.

This is something which I find to be one of the most incredible and profound mysteries. Observing. It indicates that there exists a special program in every life form on Earth. A conditional program. The act of observing indicates an ability to sense data, record data, and classify it in some way. The most important criterion must certainly be whether or not the information affects the observer positively or negatively, or in any way at all.

This must certainly be why some things simply are uninteresting to us. Our instinctive need to ensure our own continued existence causes us to prioritise the classification of any information which either threatens us or assists us in any way. If information we encounter doesn’t fall within either category and is deemed non essential to our survival then we will often completely disregard it or we may consider it for a little while and then relegate it to a remote part of our memory before eventually allowing its memory to decay. So if important information relates to our survival why do we notice beauty? Why is beauty so arresting?

I just finished reading a 3rd century philosophical treatise which included a very long segment on trying to understand beauty. Now I could lie to you and say that I followed along with everything the author, Plotinus, was saying. Parts of it did remind me a little of another book I have read, Quantum Physics –  A Beginner’s Guide. Both of these works contain parts which can make the reader quickly jump from ah, very interesting to wait, back up a little, what?

But it did get me thinking. There are certain forms that are almost universally thought of as beautiful. Certain geometric forms arrest our attention and though we may not all use the same word to describe their beauty, there seems to be a preponderance of certain formulae within the items the human sense categorises as beautiful. I don’t think I am the first to suggest that there is a mathematical formula found within these things of beauty which is derived from natural mathematics. What I mean by natural mathematics is that some shapes are formed naturally or are the consequence of perfect intersection. A circle is just that and will always be just that. The perfect circle can then be transformed into additional shapes through its multiplication and superimposition. If two circles of equal size overlap they create a universal form which is the beginning of natural geometry, or what I am calling natural mathematics. A third circle of equal size overlapping the other two can then have a triangle derived from it by joining the intersecting lines. And so on. this is what is widely referred to as sacred geometry. And it is sacred as it is unchangeable. It truly is the soul of perfection. The tenets of all existence are written in forms made up of sacred geometry. Shapes which follow as a consequence of natural progression then form more and more complex shapes.

If we agree with the idea that all life is running this conditional program, then beauty must have a role to play in our survival. I know that this is not a proper syllogism, so let me try to rework it into something a little more logical.

A syllogism is , according to Merriam-Webster dictionary: a deductive scheme of a formal argument consisting of a major and a minor premise and a conclusion. So if I were to summarise all of the above in a syllogism it would be as follows:

For survival we take notice of important information

Beauty is taken notice of

Therefore beauty is important for survival

I believe it’s safe to say if we are honest then we will find that there are countless instances where we choose the symmetrical over the asymmetrical, the evenly shaped over the misshapen, the tidy over the messed up, the beautiful over the ugly.

Of course as intelligent beings we can override such instincts. We can reprogram our propensity to select within any confines. By choosing to look at something differently or maybe trying to understand some given input from alternative angles we may choose to interact with a subject that may not exhibit the properties of textbook beauty. As is often the case, appearance could have very little to do with what benefits can be derived from a particular data set.

In short, we can choose not to judge a book by its cover. But our instinct is to do just that.

And yet I wonder if recognising and consequently analysing this tendency to be attracted toward beauty may lead us in some way toward understanding what conditional rules were programmed into our DNA for the building and propagation of life itself.



Christmas is not in December nor is it in July in Australia

Happy Christmas on June 22 to everyone in the southern hemisphere.

The sun god is reborn and begins increasing time spent in our view every day from June 22. If we were to only take into account the time of sunrise at dawn then July 1 would be the rebirth. That’s the day when sunrises stop getting later every day and start happening earlier. By taking into account length of the day we see that the total amount of daylight time stops decreasing and begins a very tiny increase of 2 seconds on 22 June. In the northern hemisphere this happens in December. December 25th, Christmas.

The Romish version was a celebration of the change at dawn; the Byzantine Eastern Orthodox version celebrates the change of time at sunset as they have Christmas in January. Both were based on “eye reckoning” as the dates reflect noticeable changes in the position of the sun on the horizon.

Locally we have the following lengths of day around the winter solstice.

Date Sunrise Sunset Length Difference
June 19 7:35 AM 5:08 PM 9:32:37 −0:07
June 20 7:35 AM 5:08 PM 9:32:33 −0:04
June 21 7:36 AM 5:08 PM 9:32:32 −0:01
June 22 7:36 AM 5:08 PM 9:32:34 +0:02
June 23 7:36 AM 5:09 PM 9:32:39 +0:05
June 24 7:36 AM 5:09 PM 9:32:47 +0:08



Learning to avoid suffering

I find that things are easier when there is money to pay the rent. But there are also times when I can’t pay the rent and bills.

During those times I sit back and think: “The one thing that is certain (death) has not been avoided in good times and will never be avoided. Every moment is there to be experienced and observed.”

Every moment must be experienced and observed. Once we live life as an observer we discover a wonderful device that can help us avoid pain and suffering. The key word here is device. Learn a method of detachment, then let go of the method. If you gained something from a particular meditation technique, great.

Allowing it to pass by as just another experience is ok too.

Genius From Outside the League

I find it tremendously awe inspiring to read about work that continues on in spite of fierce opposition. Researchers or writers who bring up concepts which fall outside of so called “mainstream” academia invariably receive a fair share of ridicule if they are acknowledged at all before some traction takes hold and support for their work begins to build. Sometimes their life’s work becomes accepted and confirmation becomes undeniable. Though it’s just as likely that they are never welcomed into the world of accepted knowledge. A few eventually have their thesis accepted and incorporated into the textbooks.

Foucault’s pendulum, Paris. Photo by Ben Ostrowsky ( [CC BY 2.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons
Let’s not forget that it wasn’t too long ago that the earth’s rotation was still in doubt. On January 3, 1851, Leon Foucault set about to test the rotation of the earth.

In his fascinating book Pendulum: Foucault and the Triumph of Science, Dr Amir D Aczel recounts what a struggle it was for Leon Foucault to convince the nation’s mathematics that the earth was rotating on its axis. He tells us of the struggle and eventual triumph of this self-taught physicist.

Foucault had been working on making the perfect pendulum for months.  Wires, metal cutters, measuring devices, and weights were all employed in its construction. What he finally came up with was a 2 meter long steel wire attached to the ceiling of his cellar in a way that allowed for free rotation without resulting torque. At the other end  of the wire, he attached a 5 kilogram brass bob. It was a free-swinging pendulum, suspended from the ceiling.

 Aczel goes on to tell us that: “Once the pendulum was set in motion, the plane in which it  oscillated back and forth could change in any direction. Designing a mechanism that would secure this property was the hardest  part of his preparations. The pendulum had to be perfectly  symmetric: Any imperfection in its shape or distribution of  weight could skew the results of the experiment, denying Foucault the proof he desired.

He held his breath as the pendulum began  to swing. Suddenly the wire snapped, and the bob fell heavily to  the ground. Three days later, he was ready to try again. He care-  fully set the pendulum in motion and waited. The bob swung  slowly in front of his eyes, and Foucault attentively followed every  oscillation.  Finally, he saw it. He detected the slight but clearly perceptible change he was looking for in the plane of the swing of the pendulum. The pendulum’s plane of oscillation had moved away  from its initial position, as if a magic hand had intervened and  pushed it slowly but steadily away from him. Foucault knew he  had just observed the impossible. The mathematicians—and  among them France’s greatest names: Laplace, Cauchy, and Poisson—had all said that such motion could not occur or, if it did,  could never be detected. Yet he, not a mathematician and not a trained physicist, somehow always knew that the mysterious  force would be there. And now, he finally found it. He saw a clear  shift in the plane of the swing of the pendulum. Léon Foucault  had just seen the Earth turn.”

To be told that something is impossible by none other than the top minds in one of the most intimidating disciplines could be enough to make many people quit. But this didn’t dissuade Foucault. In the end he had such a strong case that his opposers had to concede he may be on to something. The French Academy of Sciences still took their time in allowing him in as a member. It wasn’t until 1865 that his application to be elected as a member was successful.
His tenacity and determination is inspiring. His story also shows that new ideas take time to work their way into the body of accepted knowledge.
Of course after making this point I will point out that being outside “mainstream” doesn’t mean someone is right nor does it mean they are wrong. I have read many books by authors that many consider “fringe” writers. Some make a strong case, others seem like cranks and crackpots.
I find great pleasure in examining any argument, trying to get a complete picture and forming my own opinion without being influenced by the prevailing consensus. I think appeal to consensus smacks of cowardice, and if nothing else is lazy. Since the majority can be right as often as it is wrong we can’t rely on consensus for the forming our own opinions.

How to improve your eyesight

It’s something no one wants to hear.

“Your daughter needs an operation.”

She’s only three.

I couldn’t imagine it. It seemed unthinkable that surgical instruments would be cutting and sewing up the muscles around her eye.

“It’s a quick procedure, and the surgeon is very experienced.” After the operation we were required to bring her back for regular follow up visits.

When I asked the doctor if there was any nutritional advice or even exercises for helping improve eyesight he said no, there’s nothing.

I was stunned, but didn’t say anything.

The above incident happened nearly 20 years ago, when I knew little about how the world of medicine works. It has become clear to me over the years that the field of medicine, like many disciplines, is compartmentalised. The eye specialist is not necessarily going to dispense advice on nutrition. He may even say little to nothing about eye exercises. An optometrist will only be interested in what types of glasses you are going to buy. And while it may seem cynical to think so, it simply does not fall within their interest to give out nutritional advice. Recommending other means of achieving wellbeing would evidently create a conflict of interest for the practitioner. We can’t necessarily blame them. In an idyllic world everyone would theoretically look out for everyone’s wellbeing. I say theoretically, because it isn’t actually possible. If the word everyone includes oneself, then the logic in this particular case implodes.

We have to find somethings out for ourselves. This isn’t always easy. We will run into conflicting advice.

As far as I know the Bates Method is a very effective technique for improving eyesight and it’s a no risk endeavour.

The aforementioned conflict of interest, though, will still be apparent as one begins to read up on the Bates Method. Wikipedia, at the time of writing this blog post, has a rather dismissive tone in its article on the Bates Method, and one can only wonder who added the disparaging paragraphs to that wiki.

Aldous Huxley, best known for his book “Brave New World” was rather impressed with the Bates Method and he wrote “The Art Of Seeing” after it helped him improve his vision.